Objects of the research

The objects . Under the terms of the draft analysis of the economics of land degradation should be carried out at various hierarchical levels of administrative structure of the state - the local level (the level of individual farms, mainly agricultural), the regional level (the level of the Russian Federation), the level of the Federal District, the level of the country.

When you select the specific objects of study relied on federal regulatory guidance documents - "Guidelines for the identification of degraded and contaminated land ", 1996," Method for determining the size of the damage caused by land degradation and land », 1994.

There were 7 selected administrative regions and 21 sector (Fig. 1). The main criteria for choosing areas and farms for research were: a) representative sites for your region, b) a variety of climatic and soil conditions, c) the different levels of economic development and the type of management, d) the internal heterogeneity of the severity of the degradation processes, d) safety and the availability of materials to retrospective

monitoring in addition to remote sensing data.

Characteristics of farms (sites), including soil characteristics, types and performance degradation of their land, refer to Table. 1 and 2. The farms were selected both in administrative regions (the Federation) selected for detailed analysis, and beyond those.

7 selected regions include 1. Moscow region, Tula Region 2, 3 . Stavropol Territory, Novosibirsk Region 4., 5. Republic of Kalmykia, 6. Tavush region (Armenia) 7. Sakhalin Island (Sakhalin Region).

In addition, the objects of the study were all 9 federal districts of the Russian Federation.

Moscow region is a region with a very high level of urbanization, anthropogenic impact, including at the expense of transport, formation of landfills, man-made pollution. At the same time there is enough development of agricultural production due to high demand for food in Moscow. Very strong economic pressure on agricultural production and natural landscapes, because the high cost of land stimulates the transfer of land for development. Tula region is characterized by high levels of land degradation as a result of the development of erosion processes and due to high pollution levels, including radionuclides (after the Chernobyl accident). Stavropol is an example of a region with favorable soil and climatic conditions, but with a low level of management in agriculture, due to which tillage on many farms is carried out inefficiently, leading to the development of degradation processes.


Table. 1.Paper Type of land degradation for selected farms (sites)
N p / p The farm (site) The predominant soil The predominant character of the use Type degradation
1 «Akhty" Republic of Dagestan. The mountain meadow, alluvial soils, litozemy agricultural use (pasture) Water erosion, ovragoob-education, compaction
2 «BELNIISKH" Belgorod region. chernozem typical and leached developed to cover and loess loam, and their various eroded options < / strong> Agricultural use (crops, livestock). The main cultivated crops are winter wheat, barley, maize, sunflower, buckwheat.

Water erosion, gullying, secondary waterlogging and compaction. < / strong>

3

«Belogorye" Voronezh region.

chernozem ordinary, typical, and the residual-carbonate and residual-solonetzic developed to cover and loess loam, tertiary sand and clay, chalk and eroded their various options Agricultural use (crops, livestock). The main cultivated crops are winter wheat, barley, maize

Water erosion, ovragoob-Education (chalky ravines), compaction and zamocharivanie < / span>

4

«Vimkom" Krasnodar region.

on ordinary black cover and loess loam Agricultural use of (crop). The main cultivated crops are winter wheat, barley, canola, soybean, sunflower Wind erosion
5

«VNIIZiZPE" Kursk region.

typical chernozem developed on loess loam, and their various eroded options < / td> Agricultural use of (crop). The main cultivated crops are winter wheat, barley, canola Water erosion, gullying, compaction
6 «VNIIOU", Vladimir region. The sod-podzolic, bog soils on loam and sandy sediments, undeveloped peaty soils

Agricultural use (crop field -opytnye Institute of Organic Fertilizer). The main cultivated crops are potatoes, barley, oats.

dehumidification, secondary waterlogging.

7 «KBR1" (field of Kabardino-Balkaria Agricultural Research Institute), the Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria. ordinary black and south, developed on loess loams and clays Agricultural use of (crop). The main cultivated crops are winter wheat, corn, canola, soybeans Wind erosion, gullying, compaction
8 «KBR2" (field of Kabardino-Balkaria Agricultural Research Institute), the Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria. Chernozems mountain-WIDE carbonate, sod-calcareous and mountainous brown soils on mantle loams and clays Agricultural use of (crop). The main arable crops are corn, soybeans, wheat The water and wind erosion, compaction, dehumidification
9

«Sad-Gigant," Krasnodar region.

Chernozems micellar carbonate, alluvial saline soils on mantle loams and alluvial deposits. Agricultural use (fruit)

The secondary salinization and waterlogging.

10

" SNIISKH ", Stavropol Territory.

ordinary black and solonetzic on mantle loams and tertiary clays.

Agricultural use of (crop). The main cultivated crops are winter wheat, barley, sunflower, rape. Water erosion, compaction, alkalinity
11

«Salt Zaymische" Astrakhan region.