The methodology of research by the project RNF №14-38-00023 «Economics of Land Degradation in the Eurasian region"

Status quo.

Land degradation is a global problem, affecting up to one quarter of the Earth's land area and has a very negative impact on income and food security of nearly two billion people in all agro-ecological zones of the world (Le et al. 2014), including in the Eurasian region, particularly in Central Asia (Pender et al. 2009). While land degradation has been a major concern throughout the history of mankind (Diamond 2005), it has reached the current global scale, since the second half of the 20th century (Nkonya et al. 2011).

According to the Convention to Combat Desertification, the United Nations, land degradation is defined as« reduction or loss of biological or economic productivity of arable land and pastures, forests and woodlands resulting from land use, or the actions of one or more processes, including those related to human activities and especially its settlement, such as:

1) the wind and / or water erosion;

2) deterioration of the physical, chemical and biological or economic properties of soil;

3) long-term loss of natural vegetation »(UNCCD, 1996).

To a large extent of land degradation associated with soil degradation, though not always, these processes are interdependent: possible degradation of land, which is not accompanied by long-term irreversible changes in soil.

According to the World Soil Charter «soil degradation is the loss of soil functions , partially or completely, as a result of changes in soil man »(FAO, 2015). to visit 27593-88 "Soils. Terms and definitions » soil degradation is understood as a" deterioration and soil fertility as a result of the impact of natural or human factors ».

The world is now gripped the idea of ​​ «Land Use with a clean slate" , or Concept neutral ("zero") land degradation as the goal of sustainable development formulated at the UN Conference on Sustainable Development "Rio + 20. The essence of this idea is that by using the opportunities of modern information society for the collection and compilation of information about the environment, humanity decided to hold "environmental cleaning" in our common home - the Earth. It is expected that after the "restore order" people will live and work on the ground observing common environmental requirements, norms and rules of communication with nature.

It is obvious that in the process of achieving a real land-use neutral ("zero"), land degradation, corresponding to the "background" level of environmental quality (which can be observed only for specially protected areas), it is almost impossible. In this connection, usually under the neutral ("zero") land degradation is understood to mean their valid state in which (in terms of removing the external load) is possible self-healing quality of the environment and there is no fact of irreversible accumulation of environmental damage / injury .

I methodological approach "Assessment of the damage / harm caused by land degradation»

II methodological approach "Economic assessment of land degradation based on a comparison of economic performance of agricultural production under sustainable land management and the" traditional "land use" (approach "assessment activity / inactivity")

The aim of research for the project is:

economic assessment of land degradation in Russian and Eurasian region at different scales (economic assessment of land degradation and land based on the characteristics of their ecological functions and optimization of land use management, taking into account concepts of sustainable land management)

 

Objectives:

1) extension of the theoretical base of the economy of land degradation, including clarification of the methodology applied to multiscale problems and formation of methodical base economic assessment of land degradation and land based on the characteristics of their ecological functions;

2) the adaptation of the developed approaches to the conditions of the Russian Federation and neighboring countries, including the example of representative districts (Regions) and agricultural enterprises, based on the analysis of the causes of land degradation and the socio-economic situation in these areas;

3) development of proposals to streamline and improve the management of land use with current domestic and foreign ecological and economic requirements.

The scientific novelty of the research project.

The scientific novelty of the task is determined by three factors. First, the economy is land degradation - a new trend, which requires theoretical development, which will contribute to the research carried out within the project. Secondly, this approach has not been used on the territory of Russia and little used in the neighboring countries, that is to be carried out testing and adaptation techniques. Third, to be received and analyzed numerous data on the test region and agricultural enterprises.

Objects of the research.

Methods of the research.

Conclusion.

It is expected that the use of said complex variety of methods to achieve its in the framework of the project objectives - economic assessment of land degradation in Russian and Eurasian region at different scales.

 

 

Fig. 4. The structure of the model IMPACT - 3.

where:

PC - consumer price
QF - demand
Pint simulation - consumer price in the first (« stable») scenario in the base year
Pint ref - consumer price in the second (« traditional») scenario in the base year
P simulation - consumer price in the first scenario in the future,
P ref - consumer price in the 2nd scenario in the future,

Source: author's interpretation according to IFPRI

 

 

 

 

Fig. 5. The scheme to benefit the consumer by implementing soil conservation measures

where:

PP - manufacturer's price
QS - Offer
simulation - price of the manufacturer when using the module Welfare
simulation - quantity produced (proposal)

Source: author's interpretation according to IFPRI

Fig. 6. The scheme to benefit producers by implementing soil conservation measures

Bibliography.